Two years later, a drought is said to have facilitated tension between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in the area. In 1968 anthropologist W.E.H. There are powerful indications that small-pox epidemics may have impacted some Aboriginal tribes with depopulation in large sections of what is now Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland with up to 50% or more, even before the move inland from Sydney of squatters and their livestock. This system of keeping these unfortunate People in a constant state of alarm soon brought them to a sense of their Duty, and ... Saturday their great and most warlike Chieftain has been with me to receive his pardon and that He, with most of His Tribe, attended the annual conference held here on the 28th Novr....", Brisbane also established the New South Wales Mounted Police, who began as mounted infantry from the third Regiment, and were first deployed against bushrangers around Bathurst in 1825. Windschuttle's claims led to the so-called 'History wars' in which historians debated the extent of the conflict between Indigenous Australians and European settlers. Four years ago, Ryan received the Australian Research Council Grant to probe the 146-year-long bloody saga of the frontier wars fought between the …  The local Darug people raided farms until Governor Macquarie dispatched troops from the British Army 46th Regiment in 1816.  The colony's New South Wales, Captain Arthur Phillip, was instructed to "live in amity and kindness" with Indigenous Australians and sought to avoid conflict. In 1857, Indigenous people retaliated to the family of settler William Fraser killing 12 of their people by killing eight of his family and three others at Hawkwood Station on the upper Dawson River, central Queensland. Works which discussed the conflicts began to appear during the 1970s and 1980s, and the first history of the Australian frontier told from an Indigenous perspective, Henry Reynolds' The … Australian Frontier Wars are said to have lasted from the arrival of the British in 1788 to as late as 1934. , The invasion of what is now Queensland commenced as the Moreton Bay penal settlement from September 1824. Cook did not make further contact with the Tharawal, but later established a peaceful relationship with the Kokobujundji people when his ship, HM Bark Endeavour, had to be repaired at present-day Cooktown.. However by 1850 significant advances in firearms gave the Europeans a distinct advantage, with the six-shot Colt revolver, the Snider single shot breech-loading rifle and later the Martini-Henry rifle as well as rapid-fire rifles such as the Winchester rifle, becoming available. Mounted Constable George Murray led a revenge party comprising police and civilians, shooting more than 60 Anmatyerre, Kaytetye and Warlpiri men, women and children over several months. Governor Macquarie deployed soldiers to an area now known as Campbelltown in Sydney in 1814.  By and large neither the Europeans nor the Indigenous peoples approached the conflict in an organised sense, with the conflict more one between groups of settlers and individual tribes rather than systematic warfare, even if at times it did involve British soldiers and later formed mounted police units. The local Indigenous people became suspicious when the British began to clear land and catch fish, and in May 1788 five convicts were killed and an Indigenous man was wounded. The Memorial argues that the Australian frontier fighting is outside its charter as it did not involve Australian military forces. 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